STATEMENT OF ACCOUNTING POLICIES
The principal accounting policies adopted in the preparation of these audited financial statements are set out below. These policies have been consistently applied to all the periods presented, unless otherwise stated.
2.1 Basis of Preparation
These audited financial statements have been prepared in accordance with New Zealand Generally Accepted Accounting Practice (NZGAAP). They comply with New Zealand equivalents to International Financial Reporting Standards (NZ IFRS), International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) and other applicable New Zealand Financial Reporting Standards, as appropriate for profit-oriented entities.
The consolidated financial statements of the Group are for the economic entity comprising TrustPower Limited and its subsidiaries. The consolidated entity is designated as a profit-oriented entity for financial reporting purposes.
TrustPower Limited is registered under the Companies Act 1993 and is an issuer in terms of the Financial Reporting Act 1993. The financial statements have been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Financial Reporting Act 1993 and the Companies Act 1993.
Historical cost convention
These financial statements have been prepared under the historical cost convention, as modified by the revaluation of generation assets, derivative financial instruments, unsold emission rights and employee share options which are stated at fair value.
The preparation of financial statements in conformity with NZ IFRS requires the Group to make judgements, estimates and assumptions that affect the application of policies and reported amounts of assets and liabilities, income and expenses. The areas involving a higher degree of judgment or complexity, or areas where assumptions and estimates are significant to the financial statements are disclosed in note 37.
Functional and Presentation Currency
Items included in the financial statements of each of the Group's entities are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates ('the functional currency'). The consolidated financial statements are presented in 'New Zealand Dollars' (NZD), which is the Company's functional and the Group's presentation currency.
2.2 Principles of Consolidation
Subsidiaries are all entities over which the Group has the power to govern the financial and operating policies generally accompanying a shareholding of more than one half of the voting rights. Subsidiaries are fully consolidated from the date on which control is transferred to the Group and they are no longer consolidated from the date that control ceases.
The purchase method of accounting is used to account for the acquisition of subsidiaries by the Group. The cost of an acquisition is measured as the fair values of the assets given, equity instruments issued and liabilities incurred or assumed at the date of exchange. Identifiable assets acquired and liabilities and contingent liabilities assumed in a business combination are measured initially at their fair values at the acquisition date, irrespective of the extent of any minority interest. The excess of the cost of the acquisition over the fair value of the Group's share of the identifiable net assets acquired is recorded as goodwill. If the cost of the acquisition is less than the fair value of the net assets of the subsidiary acquired, the difference is recognised directly in the income statement.
Inter-company transactions, balances and unrealised gains on transactions between Group companies are eliminated. Unrealised losses are also eliminated but are considered as an impairment indicator of the assets transferred. Accounting policies of subsidiaries have been changed where necessary to ensure consistency with the policies adopted by the Group.
2.3 Segment Reporting
Operating segments are reported in a manner consistent with the internal reporting provided to the chief operating decision-maker. The chief operating decision-maker, who is responsible for allocating resources and assessing performance of the operating segments, has been identified as the Board.
2.4 Trade Receivables
Trade receivables are initially recognised at fair value and subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method, less provision for impairment. A provision for impairment of receivables is established when there is objective evidence that the Group will not be able to collect all amounts due according to the original terms of the receivables. The amount of the provision is the difference between the asset's carrying amount and the present value of estimated future cash flows, discounted at the original effective interest rate. The amount of the impairment loss is recognised in the income statement. The criteria that the Group uses to determine that there is objective evidence of an impairment loss include:
• Significant financial difficulty of the issuer or obligor;
• A breach of contract, such as a default or delinquency in interest or principal payments;
• The Group, for economic or legal reasons relating to the borrower's financial difficulty, granting to the borrower a concession that the lender would not otherwise consider; and
• It becomes probable that the borrower will enter bankruptcy or other financial reorganisation.
2.5 Financial Assets
The Group classifies all of its investments as financial assets at fair value through the profit or loss, held to maturity financial assets or loans and receivables. The classification depends on the purpose for which the investments were acquired. Management determines the classification of its investments at initial recognition.
Financial assets at fair value through the profit or loss
Financial assets at fair value through the profit or loss are financial assets held for trading. A financial asset is classified in this category if it is acquired principally for the purpose of selling in the short term. Derivatives are classified as held for trading unless they are designated as hedges. Assets in this category are classified as non-current assets where the remaining maturity of the asset is greater than 12 months; they are classified as current assets when the remaining maturity of the asset is less than 12 months.
Held to maturity financial assets
Held to maturity financial assets are non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments and fixed maturities, other than those that meet the definition of loans and receivables, that the Group's management has the positive intention and ability to hold until maturity. These assets are recognised initially at fair value and subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest rate method, less any provision for impairment.
Loans and receivables
Loans and receivables are non-derivative financial assets with fixed or determinable payments that are not quoted in an active market. They are included in current assets, except for maturities greater than 12 months after the end of the reporting period. These are classified as non-current assets. Advances to New Zealand based subsidiaries are interest free while advances to overseas based subsidiaries incur interest at a market rate.
Recognition and derecognition
Regular purchases and sales of financial assets are recognised on the trade-date – the date on which the Group commits to purchase or sell the asset. Investments are initially recognised at fair value plus transaction costs for all financial assets not carried at fair value through the profit or loss. Financial assets carried at fair value through profit or loss are initially recognised at fair value, and transaction costs are expensed in the income statement. Financial assets are derecognised when the rights to receive cash flows from the investments have expired or have been transferred and the Group has transferred substantially all risks and rewards of ownership.
Financial assets at fair value through profit or loss are subsequently carried at fair value. Loans and receivables are carried at amortised cost using the effective interest method.
Gains or losses arising from changes in the fair value of the 'financial assets at fair value through profit or loss' category are presented in the income statement, within fair value movements of financial instruments, in the period in which they arise. Dividend income from financial assets at fair value through profit or loss is recognised in the income statement as part of other income when the Group's right to receive payments is established.
The fair values of quoted investments are based on current bid prices. If the market for a financial asset is not active (and for unlisted securities), the Group establishes fair value by using valuation techniques. These include the use of recent arms length transactions, reference to other instruments that are substantially the same, discounted cash flow analysis and option pricing models, making maximum use of market inputs and relying as little as possible on entity-specific inputs.
Impairment of financial assets
The Group assesses at the end of each reporting period whether there is objective evidence that a financial asset or a group of financial assets is impaired. Impairment testing of trade receivables is described in note 2.4.
2.6 Property, Plant and Equipment
Generation assets are shown at fair value, based on at least three-yearly valuations by independent external valuers, less subsequent depreciation. This valuation is reviewed annually and if it is considered that there has been a material change then a new independent valuation is undertaken. Any accumulated depreciation at the date of the revaluation is eliminated against the gross carrying amount of the asset, and the net amount is restated to the revalued amount of the asset. All other property is stated at historical cost less depreciation. Historical cost includes expenditure that is directly attributable to the acquisition of the items. Cost may also include transfers from equity of any gains/losses on qualifying cash flow hedges of foreign currency purchases of property, plant and equipment.
The cost of assets constructed by the Group, including capital work in progress, includes the cost of all materials used in construction, direct labour specifically associated, resource management consent renewal costs, and an appropriate proportion of variable and fixed overheads. Financing costs on uncompleted capital work in progress are capitalised at the specific project finance interest rate, where these meet certain time and monetary materiality limits. Costs cease to be capitalised as soon as the asset is ready for productive use and do not include any inefficiency costs.
Subsequent costs are included in the asset's carrying amount or recognised as a separate asset only when it is probable that future economic benefits will flow to the Group and the cost of the item can be measured reliably. The carrying amount of any replaced item is derecognised. All other repairs and maintenance are charged to the income statement during the financial period in which they are incurred.
Increases in the carrying amount arising on revaluation of generation assets are credited to the revaluation reserve in equity. Decreases that offset previous increases of the same asset are charged against the revaluation reserve directly in equity. All other decreases are charged to the income statement.
Land is not depreciated. Depreciation on all other property, plant and equipment is calculated using the straight-line method at rates calculated to allocate each asset's cost over its estimated useful life. Depreciation is charged on a straight line basis as follows:
Freehold buildings 2% Generation assets 0.5-8%
Metering equipment 5% Plant and equipment 10-33%
The assets' residual values and useful lives are reviewed, and adjusted if appropriate, at the end of each reporting period.
An asset's carrying amount is written down immediately to its recoverable amount if the asset's carrying amount is greater than its estimated recoverable amount.
Gains and losses on disposals are determined by comparing the proceeds with the carrying amount and are recognised within loss/(gain) on sale of property, plant and equipment, in the income statement. When revalued assets are sold, the amounts included in the revaluation reserve are transferred to retained earnings.
2.7 Investment in Subsidiaries
Investments in, and advances to, subsidiaries are recorded at cost less any impairment writedowns.
2.8 Emission Rights
The Group receives tradable emission rights from specific energy production levels of certain renewable generation facilities. The future revenue arising from the sale of these emission rights is a key matter in deciding whether to proceed with construction of the generation facility and is considered to be part of the value of the generation assets recorded in the statement of financial position.
Emission rights produced are recognised in the statement of financial position if the right has been verified, it is probable that expected future economic benefits will flow to the Group, and the rights can be measured reliably. Emission rights are initially measured at cost. After initial recognition, the emission rights are carried at fair value with any changes taken to the income statement. Fair value is determined by reference to an active market. If the emission rights cannot be valued because there is no active market, the emission rights are carried at cost less any subsequent accumulated impairment losses.
2.9 Intangible Assets
Customer base assets
Costs incurred in acquiring customers from other electricity supply companies and telecommunications companies are recorded as a customer base intangible asset. The customer bases are amortised on a straight line basis over the period of expected benefit. This period has been assessed as 20 years for electricity customer bases and 5 years for telecommunication customer bases. These useful lives are reviewed annually with reference to historical levels of churn experienced in the relevant markets. The carrying value of the customer bases is reviewed annually by the Directors and adjusted where it is considered necessary. The carrying values are reviewed with reference to the expected future cash flows from these customers. The expected future cash flows are produced via internal forecasting.
Acquired computer software licences are capitalised on the basis of the costs incurred to acquire and bring to use the specific software. These costs are amortised over three years on a straight line basis except for major pieces of billing system software which are amortised over no more than seven years on a straight line basis.
Costs associated with developing or maintaining computer programmes are recognised as an expense as incurred. Costs that are directly associated with the development of identifiable and unique software products controlled by the Group, and that will probably generate economic benefits exceeding costs for more than one year, are recognised as intangible assets. Costs include the employee costs incurred as a result of developing software and an appropriate portion of relevant overheads. Computer software development costs recognised as assets are amortised over their estimated useful lives (not exceeding three years).
All of the Group's intangible assets have finite lives.
2.10 Revenue Recognition
Revenue comprises the fair value of consideration received or receivable for the sale of electricity, telecommunications and related services in the ordinary course of the Group's activities. Revenue is shown net of goods and services tax, rebates and discounts and after eliminating sales within the Group.
Customer consumption of electricity is measured and billed by calendar month for half hourly metered customers and in line with meter reading schedules for non-half hourly metered customers. Accordingly revenues from electricity sales include an estimated accrual for units sold but not billed at the end of the reporting period for non-half hourly metered customers.
Customer consumption of telecommunications services is measured and billed according to monthly billing cycles. Accordingly revenues from telecommunications services provided include an estimated accrual for services provided but not billed at the end of the reporting period.
Meter rental revenue is charged and recognised on a per day basis.
Other customer fees and charges are recognised when the service is provided.
Operating lease revenue earned by Snowtown Wind Farm Pty Ltd is recognised when the services have been performed under the terms of the arrangement. Refer to note 6 for further details.
Interest income is recognised on a time-proportion basis using the effective interest method.
Dividend income is recognised when the right to receive payment is established.
2.11 Employee Entitlements
Employee entitlements to salaries and wages, non monetary benefits, annual leave and other benefits are recognised when they accrue to employees. This includes the estimated liability for salaries and wages, annual leave and sick leave as a result of services rendered by employees up to the end of the reporting period.
The Group operates an equity-settled, share-based compensation plan. The fair value of the employee services received in exchange for the granting of the options is recognised as an expense. The total amount to be expensed over the vesting period is determined by reference to the fair value of the options granted, excluding the impact of any non-market vesting conditions (for example, profitability and sales growth targets). Non-market vesting conditions are included in assumptions about the number of options that are expected to vest. At the end of each reporting period, the entity revises its estimates of the number of options that are expected to vest. It recognises the impact of the revision to original estimates, if any, in the income statement, with a corresponding adjustment to equity.
The proceeds received net of any directly attributable transaction costs are credited to share capital when the options are exercised.
The Group operates cash-settled share based incentive schemes for key management personnel of the Parent.
The Group recognises an expense and a liability as the employees render services over the vesting period at the fair value of the liability. Until the liability is settled, the Group re-measures the fair value of the liability at the end of each reporting period and at the date of settlement, with any changes in fair value recognised in profit or loss for the period. The fair value of the liability is measured taking into account the terms and conditions of the scheme.
The Group recognises a liability and an expense for bonuses, based on a formula that takes into consideration the profit attributable to the Company's shareholders after certain adjustments. The Group recognises a provision where contractually obliged or where there is a past practice that has created a constructive obligation.
Termination benefits are payable when employment is terminated by the Group before the normal retirement date, or whenever an employee accepts voluntary redundancy in exchange for these benefits. The Group recognises termination benefits when it is demonstrably committed to either: terminating the employment of current employees according to a detailed formal plan without possibility of withdrawal; or providing termination benefits as a result of an offer made to encourage voluntary redundancy. Benefits falling due more than 12 months after the end of the reporting period are discounted to their present value.
2.12 Foreign Currency Translation
Items included in the financial statements of each of the Group's entities are measured using the currency of the primary economic environment in which the entity operates (the functional currency). These financial statements are presented in New Zealand dollars, which is the Parent's functional and presentation currency.
Transactions denominated in a foreign currency are converted to New Zealand dollars at the exchange rate on the date of the transaction. Monetary assets and liabilities arising from foreign currency transactions are translated at closing rates at the end of the reporting period. Gains or losses from currency translation on these items are included in the income statement.
The results and financial position of all the Group entities (none of which has the currency of a hyperinflationary economy) that have a functional currency different from the presentation currency are translated into the presentation currency as follows:
• assets and liabilities for each statement of financial position presented are translated at the closing rate at the end of the reporting period
• income and expenses for each income statement are translated at average exchange rates
• all resulting exchange rate differences are recognised as a separate component of equity.
On consolidation, foreign exchange differences arising from the translation of the net investment in foreign operations, and of borrowings and other currency instruments designated as hedges of such investments, are taken to the foreign currency translation reserve. When a foreign operation is partially disposed of or sold, such foreign exchange differences are recognised in the income statement as part of the gain or loss on sale.
2.13 Generation Development
The Group incurs costs in the exploration, evaluation, consenting and construction of generation assets. Costs incurred are expensed in the income statement unless such costs are highly likely to be recouped through successful development of, and generation of electricity from, a particular project. Where costs meet this criteria and are capitalised they will ultimately be amortised over the estimated useful life of a project once it is completed. The Directors review the status of capitalised development expenditure on a regular basis and in the event that a project is abandoned, or if the Directors consider the expenditure to be impaired, a write off or provision is made in the year in which that assessment is made.
Borrowings are recognised initially at fair value, net of transaction costs incurred. Borrowings are subsequently stated at amortised cost; any difference between the proceeds (net of transaction costs) and the redemption value is recognised in the income statement over the term of the borrowings using the effective interest method.
Borrowings are classified as current liabilities unless the Group has an unconditional right to defer settlement of the liability for at least 12 months after the end of the reporting period.
The Group has property, plant and equipment, which is predominately concentrated at power station locations, that has the potential to sustain major losses through damage to plant with resultant consequential costs.
To minimise the financial impact of such exposures, the major portion of the risk is insured by taking out appropriate insurance policies with appropriate counterparties. Any uninsured loss is recognised in the income statement at the time the loss is incurred.
2.16 Impairment of Non-Financial Assets
Assets that have an indefinite useful life, for example land, are not subject to amortisation and are tested annually for impairment. Assets that are subject to amortisation are reviewed for impairment whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount may not be recoverable. An impairment loss is recognised for the amount by which the asset's carrying amount exceeds its recoverable amount. The recoverable amount is the higher of an asset's fair value less costs to sell and value in use. For the purposes of assessing impairment, assets are grouped at the lowest levels for which there are separately identifiable cash flows (cash-generating units). Assets other than goodwill that suffer an impairment are reviewed for possible reversal of the impairment at the end of each reporting period.
2.17 Cash and Cash Equivalents
Cash and cash equivalents include cash on hand, deposits held at call with banks, other short-term highly liquid investments with original maturities of three months or less, and bank overdrafts. Bank overdrafts are shown within borrowings in current liabilities in the statement of financial position.
2.18 Cash Flow Statement
The following are the definitions used in the cash flow statement:
• cash is considered to be cash on hand and deposits held at call with banks, net of bank overdrafts
• operating activities include all activities that are not investing or financing activities
• investing activities are those activities relating to the acquisition, holding and disposal of property, plant and equipment, intangible assets and investments
• financing activities are those activities, which result in changes in the size and composition of the capital structure of the Group. This includes both equity and debt not falling within the definition of cash. Dividends paid in relation to the capital structure are included in financing activities.
2.19 Goods and Services Tax (GST)
The income statement and cash flow statement have been prepared so that all components are stated exclusive of GST. All items in the statement of financial position are stated exclusive of GST, with the exception of billed receivables and payables which include GST invoiced.
2.20 Income Tax
The income tax expense comprises both current and deferred tax. Income tax is recognised in the income statement except to the extent that it relates to items recognised directly in equity, in which case the income tax is recognised directly in equity.
Deferred income tax is provided in full, using the liability method, on temporary differences arising between the tax bases of assets and liabilities and their carrying amounts in the financial statements. The following temporary differences are not provided for: the initial recognition of assets or liabilities in a transaction other than a business combination that at the time of transaction affects neither accounting nor taxable profit, and differences relating to investments in subsidiaries to the extent that they will probably not reverse in the foreseeable future. Deferred tax is determined using tax rates (and laws) that have been enacted or substantially enacted by the end of the reporting period and are expected to apply when the related deferred tax liability (asset)
is settled (realised).
Deferred tax assets are recognised to the extent that it is probable that future taxable profit will be available against which the temporary differences can be utilised.
2.21 Derivative Financial Instruments and Hedging Activities
Derivatives are initially recognised at fair value on the date a derivative contract is entered into and are periodically remeasured at their fair value. The method of recognising the resulting gain or loss depends on whether the derivative is designated as a hedging instrument, and if so, the nature of the item being hedged. The Group designates certain derivatives as one of the following:
• hedges of the fair value of recognised assets, liabilities or a firm commitment (fair value hedge)
• hedges of highly probable forecast transactions (cash flow hedges)
• hedges of net investments in foreign operations.
The Group documents, at the inception of the transaction, the relationship between hedging instruments and hedged items, as well as its risk management objectives and strategy for undertaking various hedging transactions. The Group also documents its assessment, both at hedge inception and on an ongoing basis, of whether the derivatives that are used in hedging transactions are highly effective in offsetting changes in fair values or cash flows of hedged items. The fair values of various derivative instruments used for hedging purposes are disclosed in note 20. Movements on the cash flow hedge reserve in equity are shown in the statement of comprehensive income. The full fair value of a derivative is classified as a non-current asset or liability when the remaining maturity of the derivative is more than 12 months; it is classified as a current asset or liability when the remaining maturity of the derivative is less than 12 months.
Fair Value Hedges
Changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as fair value hedges are recorded in the income statement, together with any changes in the fair value of the hedged asset or liability that are attributable to the hedged risk.
Cash Flow Hedges
The effective portion of changes in the fair value of derivatives that are designated and qualify as cash flow hedges is recognised in equity. The gain or loss relating to the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the income statement.
Amounts accumulated in equity are recycled in the income statement in the periods when the hedged item affects profit or loss. However, when the forecast transaction that is hedged results in the recognition of a non-financial asset, the gains and losses previously deferred in equity are transferred from equity and included in the measurement of the cost of the asset.
When a hedging instrument expires or is sold, or when a hedge no longer meets the criteria for hedge accounting, any cumulative gain or loss existing in equity at that time remains in equity and is recognised in accordance with the above policy when the transaction occurs. When a forecast transaction is no longer expected to occur, the cumulative gain or loss that was reported in equity is immediately transferred to the income statement.
Net Investment Hedge
Hedges of net investments in foreign operations are accounted for similarly to cash flow hedges. Any gain or loss on the hedging instrument relating to the effective portion of the hedge is recognised in equity. The gain or loss relating to the ineffective portion is recognised immediately in the income statement.
Derivatives that do not qualify for hedge accounting
Certain derivatives do not qualify for hedge accounting. Changes in the fair value of these derivative instruments that do not qualify for hedge accounting are recognised immediately in the income statement.
2.22 Share Capital
Ordinary shares are classified as equity. Incremental costs directly attributable to the issue of new shares or options are shown in equity as a deduction, net of tax, from the proceeds.
Where the Company purchases the Company's equity share capital (treasury stock), the consideration paid is deducted from equity attributable to the Company's equity holders until the shares are cancelled or reissued. Where such shares are subsequently reissued, any consideration received is included in equity attributable to the Company's equity holders.
2.23 Trade Payables
Trade payables are recognised initially at fair value and subsequently measured at amortised cost using the effective interest method.
Leases in which a significant portion of the risks and rewards of ownership are retained by the lessor are classified as operating leases. Payments made under operating leases (net of any incentives received from the lessor) are charged to the income statement on a straight-line basis over the period of the lease.
2.25 Dividend Distribution
Dividend distribution to the Company's shareholders is recognised as a liability in the Group's financial statements in the period in which the dividend is approved by the Board.
2.26 Other Investments
Other investments include investments in non-group companies as well as insurance investments. Insurance investments include government stock and money market deposits.
2.27 Adoption Status of Relevant New Financial Reporting Standards and Interpretations
The following new standards and amendments to standards were applied during the period;
NZ IFRS 3: Business Combinations (revised) and NZ IAS 27: Consolidated and Separate Financial Statements (Revised)
This amendment includes a number of updates including the requirement that all costs relating to a business combination must be expensed and subsequent re-measurement of the business combination must be put through the income statement. Both standards were required to be adopted at the same time. As the Group has had no transactions involving business combinations there has been no impact from the application of these new standards.
NZ IAS 32 Financial Instruments: Presentation (revised)
This amendment has clarified that share rights, warrants or options may be classified as equity instruments subject to certain criteria being satisfied.
Improvements to NZ IFRS 2009
These improvements include certain amendments to NZ IFRS effective for periods beginning on or after 1 January 2010 that have been made as part of the International Accounting Standards Board's annual improvements process.
Certain new standards, amendments and interpretations of existing standards have been published that are mandatory for later periods and which the Group has not early adopted. These will be applied by the Group in the mandatory periods listed below. The key items applicable to the Group are:
NZ IFRS 9: Financial Instruments (mandatory for periods beginning on or after 1 January 2013)
This replaces the multiple classification and measurements models in IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and measurements with a single model that has only two classification categories: amortised cost and fair value. This will affect future financial statements through disclosure only.
NZ IAS 24: Related Parties Revised (mandatory for periods beginning on or after 1 January 2011)
Further clarifies the definition of a related party which may result in other related parties being identified. Management have reviewed the proposed clarification and do not expect that this will result in further related parties being identified for the Group.
Improvements to NZ IFRS 2010
These improvements include various amendments effective for periods beginning on or after 1 July 2011 and are not expected to have a material impact on the financial statements.
There are no other standards, amendments or interpretations to existing standards which have been issued, but are not yet effective, which are expected to impact the Company or Group.